Anti-vehicle Handbook - UNITAF Force Manual (FM)




Anti-vehicle Handbook
The FM outlines our core skills, policies and guides to ensure every member stands ready for the mission ahead.



FM/G18 - Vehicle class identification

Guide
FM/BG-101 - Vehicle identification overview
Guide

Vehicle identification is a useful skill for anyone on the battlefield, and a requirement for many of the more specialised roles. While some vehicles pose only a minimal threat, some can halt an entire platoon by themselves. As such accurate identification is crucial to good situational awareness, planning and tasking.

  • Identifying a vehicle can be done at three levels of depth:
    • Vehicle class
    • Subclass within vehicle class
    • Specific vehicle model
  • Not all vehicles within a class fall under a subclass.
  • Vehicle identification covers only military vehicles. 
  • Any other vehicle should be referred to by it's common name, e.g.
    • pickup 
    • truck
    • bicycle
    • jetski
Guide
FM/BG-129 - Common terminology for vehicle identification
Guide
  • Auto-cannon: an automatic gun with a caliber between 20-60 mm
  • Cannon: a gun bigger than an auto-cannon
  • Direct fire: firing a weapon within the line-of-sight of the user of the weapon in a (relatively) flat trajectory
  • Indirect fire: firing a weapon outside the line-of-sight of the user of the weapon
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-102 - Identify light vehicles
T-I+ Skill

Rapidly identify a light vehicle as being:

  • Wheeled
  • Not armed with an autocannon or larger
  • Not classified as an AFV

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • Technical: civilian vehicle adapted for military use
  • MRAP: mine resistant and protected against small arms
  • Truck: military truck
A column of US Army M1114 uparmored HMMWV (or Humvee)

Above: A column of US Army M1114 uparmored HMMWV (or Humvee)

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-103 - Identify AFVs
T-I+ Skill

Rapidly identify a AFV as being:

  • Wheeled or tracked
  • Armed with nothing to cannon, intended for direct fire
  • Protected against at least small arms

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • APC: armed with up to a heavy machine-gun
  • IFV: armed with an autocannon
  • Assault gun: armed with a cannon
  • ATGM carrier: armed with ATGMs (anti-tank guided missile) as primary armament
US Army M1126 Stryker AFV on patrol

Above: US Army M1126 Stryker AFV on patrol

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-104 - Identify tanks
T-III+ Skill

Rapidly identify a tank as being:

  • Tracked
  • Turreted
  • Protected against at least auto-cannon fire
  • Having a cannon capable and intended for direct fire

There are no subclasses.

A section of US Army M1A2 SEPv2 Tanks engaging enemy forces

Above: A section of US Army M1A2 SEPv2 Tanks engaging enemy forces

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-108 - Identify artillery
T-III+ Skill

Rapidly identify artillery as being:

  • Towed, wheeled or tracked
  • Having a cannon or rocket tubes intended for indirect fire

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • Towed artillery: cannot move by itself
  • Self propelled artillery: cannon/rocket tubes is mounted on a wheeled or tracked vehicle
M119 Howitzer towed artillery unit in it's deployed configuration

Above: M119 Howitzer towed artillery unit in it's deployed configuration

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-105 - Identify anti-air
T-III+ Skill

Rapidly identify anti-air being:

  • Primarily inteded for engaging helicopters or planes

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • AAA (anti-air artillery): primary armament is one or more guns
  • SAM: primary armament is surface-to-air missiles
ZSU-23 Shilka Anti-Aircraft System

Above: ZSU-23 Shilka Anti-Aircraft System

T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-109 - Identify helicopters
T-IV+ Skill

Rapidly identify a helicopter as being:

  • Capable of powered flight
  • Generating lift with one or more horizontally spinning fixed rotors

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • Utility helicopter: armament is only intended for self defense (e.g. a door gun)
  • Attack helicopter: armament is intended for offensive use (e.g. rocket pods)
US Army AH-64D Apache Gunship

Above: US Army AH-64D Apache Gunship

T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-465 - Identify tiltrotor aircraft
T-IV+ Skill

Rapidly identify tiltrotor aircraft as being:

  • Capable of powered flight
  • Generating lift with one or more horizontally spinning rotors capable of rotating in flight

There are no subclasses.

T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-107 - Identify planes
T-IV+ Skill

Rapidly identify a plane as being:

  • Capable of powered flight
  • Generating lift with wings

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • Cargo plane: military plane used to ferry cargo or passengers
  • Attack plane: slower flying aircraft intended for ground attack
  • Fighter plane: fast flying aircraft intended to fight other planes
US Air Force A-10A Warthog releasing a GBU-48 Enhanced Paveway II

Above: US Air Force A-10A Warthog releasing a GBU-48 Enhanced Paveway II

FM/G24 - Vehicle model identification

Guide
FM/BG-130 - Identifying a BTR-60/70/80
Guide

As the main APC of the Soviet/Russian army the BTR has a crew of 3 that sits at the front, a passenger compartment in the middle with a door on each side of the vehicle and a rear-mounted engine. It is armed with either a 14.5mm MG or a 30mm auto-cannon and is amphibious. 

When targeting this vehicle you should: shoot at it frontally or from the rear, as side shots are tricky and it is easy to hit the passenger compartment missing vital components.

A pair of Chedaki BTR-60 APCs

Above: A pair of Chedaki BTR-60 APCs

Guide
FM/BG-131 - Identifying a BMP-1
Guide

The BMP-1 is one of the most common types of Soviet/Russian IFVs, it has a crew of 3 that sits in the middle of the vehicle, a passenger compartment in the rear and a front mounted engine. It is armed with a 76mm cannon, and some versions are also equipped with an ATGM and is amphibious. 

When targeting this vehicle you should: shoot frontally or from the side and from the rear only with APFSDS. Shooting from the front will take out the engine, when shooting from the side aim from the front half of the vehicle, as everything behind the turret is passenger compartment. Hitting from the rear will not damage the vehicle unless it can penetrate deep into the vehicle.

A pair of Russian BMP-1 IFVs

Above: A pair of Russian BMP-1 IFVs

Guide
FM/BG-132 - Identifying a BMP-2
Guide

The BMP-2 is an improved BMP-1 equipped with a 30mm autocannon instead of the 76mm cannon.

Russian BMP-2M IFV

Above: Russian BMP-2M IFV

FM/G16 - Using man portable launchers

Guide
FM/BG-80 - Firing from enclosures
Guide

Firing anti-tank weapons indoors can be very hazardous. Avoid doing so when possible as the backblast can kill or seriously injure you due to the restrictions of the structure.

Soft-launch weapons like the Javelin or NLAW can be safely fired out of an enclosed space, but RPGs, AT-4s, SMAWs, and other common hard-launch anti-tank weapons cannot.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-82 - Choose an appropriate firing position
T-I+ Skill

Use a firing position that provides:

  • as good of a shot as possible on the target
  • the best possible cover
  • no backblast hazard (like an enclosed space)
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-83 - Alert others of intent to fire
T-I+ Skill

When preparing to make an anti-vehicle shot, quickly scan the surrounding area while loudly declaring others to "Clear backblast!". The scan is intended to give visibility on who or what may be behind the launcher and help visually verify that the backblast area is clear of friendly personnel.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-84 - Check backblast is clear
T-I+ Skill

Declare "Backblast clear!" to let the gunner know that they are able to safely fire, after clearing the danger area by visually scanning it.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-85 - Alert and fire the rocket
T-I+ Skill

Upon hearing "Backblast clear!", or having visually confirmed that the area is clear, confirm the sight picture, loudly declare "Rocket!" and then fire the weapon.

FM/G14 - Light anti-tank weapons (LAT)

Policy
FM/BP-113 - What classifies as a LAT weapon system?
Policy

A light anti-tank weapon system is an anti-tank weapon that meets the following criteria:

  • Is not guided
  • Is not re-loadable (i.e. is single-use/disposable)
LAT Rifleman prepares to fire the M136 Light anti-tank launcher

Above: LAT Rifleman prepares to fire the M136 Light anti-tank launcher

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-76 - Hit static vehicle targets within the effective range of the unguided weapon system
T-I+ Skill

Hit non-moving (static) vehicle targets:

  • Within the effective range of the weapon
  • While using a unguided weapon system
T-II+ Skill
FM/BS-99 - Hit moving vehicle targets within the effective range of the unguided weapon system
T-II+ Skill

Hit moving (non static) vehicle targets:

  • Within the effective range of the weapon
  • While using an unguided weapon system
T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-125 - Aim at the correct part of a vehicle with an unguided launcher
T-III+ Skill

When shooting an unguided rocket, use the following criteria to determine the part of a vehicle to aim for:

  • Will the rocket penetrate? Generally the front of the vehicle will be the strongest part, while the rear will be the weakest. Impact angle should be as close to 90° as possible.  
  • Will the rocket cause damage? The rocket needs to hit a certain part of a vehicle to do damage to it. The best components to hit are the turret and the engine, with worst being the passenger compartment. Keep in mind different types of ammunition will affect the type and amount of damage a vehicle takes from a hit.
From top left to bottom right: Rear, Flank, Frontal, Frontal Oblique, Rear Oblique

Above: From top left to bottom right: Rear, Flank, Frontal, Frontal Oblique, Rear Oblique

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-127 - Prioritize vehicle targets
T-III+ Skill

Prioritize vehicle targets based on the following factors:

  • Urgency of the threat: immediate threats should be engaged first, with vehicles posing no threat either engaged last or not engaged at all.
  • Success chance: every engagement should have the highest possible likelihood to succeed. In any case, refrain from shooting when:
    • the target is out of range
    • the target is moving too fast
    • the target cannot be effectively damaged
  • Future considerations: do not engage vehicles when doing so might have negative effect later. e.g. shooting an AT-4 at technical, when expecting BMPs.

FM/G19 - Roles in an anti-vehicle team

Policy
FM/BP-110 - Anti-vehicle gunner
Policy
  • Senior member of the team.
  • Carries the launcher.
  • Chooses the firing position for the team.
  • Engages targets and listens to his assistant-gunner's directions.
  • Decides on the best rocket type to use on the given target.
Policy
FM/BP-111 - Assistant anti-vehicle gunner
Policy
  • Junior member of the team.
  • Equipped with binoculars, he carries additional rockets for the launcher and acts as a spotter for the gunner.
  • Gives adjustments to the gunner's spotting rifle and rocket fire, scans for, and prioritizes enemy armored targets and emplacements.
  • Provides rockets to the gunner when required.
Guide
FM/BG-112 - Crew served weapons
Guide

Crew served weapons are weapons which whether static or mobile, require multiple personnel to function properly. Good examples of Crew Served Weapons are Mortars or Artillery, or Heavy Machine Guns on static emplacements where when disassembled, require two people to be carried.

FM/G21 - Medium anti-tank weapons (MAT)

Guide
FM/BG-116 - What is a medium anti-tank team (MAT)?
Guide

A medium anti-tank (MAT) team is a rocket team that is capable of delivering accurate and deadly direct-fire against tanks, bunkers, buildings, and other suitable hard targets. They are commonly attached to a platoon when assaulting fortified positions or when enemy armored assets are expected. Two example MAT weapons are the SMAW and MAAWS launchers.

Policy
FM/BP-117 - What classifies as a MAT weapon system?
Policy

A medium anti-tank weapon system is an anti-tank weapon that meets the following criteria:

  • Is not guided
  • Is re-loadable
  • Often has multiple round types for a variety of uses
AT Rifleman (Medium) engaging a Russian IFV with a M2 Carl Gustav

Above: AT Rifleman (Medium) engaging a Russian IFV with a M2 Carl Gustav

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-76 - Hit static vehicle targets within the effective range of the unguided weapon system
T-I+ Skill

Hit non-moving (static) vehicle targets:

  • Within the effective range of the weapon
  • While using a unguided weapon system
T-II+ Skill
FM/BS-99 - Hit moving vehicle targets within the effective range of the unguided weapon system
T-II+ Skill

Hit moving (non static) vehicle targets:

  • Within the effective range of the weapon
  • While using an unguided weapon system
T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-127 - Prioritize vehicle targets
T-III+ Skill

Prioritize vehicle targets based on the following factors:

  • Urgency of the threat: immediate threats should be engaged first, with vehicles posing no threat either engaged last or not engaged at all.
  • Success chance: every engagement should have the highest possible likelihood to succeed. In any case, refrain from shooting when:
    • the target is out of range
    • the target is moving too fast
    • the target cannot be effectively damaged
  • Future considerations: do not engage vehicles when doing so might have negative effect later. e.g. shooting an AT-4 at technical, when expecting BMPs.
T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-125 - Aim at the correct part of a vehicle with an unguided launcher
T-III+ Skill

When shooting an unguided rocket, use the following criteria to determine the part of a vehicle to aim for:

  • Will the rocket penetrate? Generally the front of the vehicle will be the strongest part, while the rear will be the weakest. Impact angle should be as close to 90° as possible.  
  • Will the rocket cause damage? The rocket needs to hit a certain part of a vehicle to do damage to it. The best components to hit are the turret and the engine, with worst being the passenger compartment. Keep in mind different types of ammunition will affect the type and amount of damage a vehicle takes from a hit.
From top left to bottom right: Rear, Flank, Frontal, Frontal Oblique, Rear Oblique

Above: From top left to bottom right: Rear, Flank, Frontal, Frontal Oblique, Rear Oblique

FM/G22 - Heavy anti-tank weapons (HAT)

Guide
FM/BG-119 - What is a heavy anti-tank (HAT) team?
Guide

The heavy anti-tank team (HAT) wields the most deadly anti-tank infantry-carried weapon systems available. When heavy armor is expected, they are great assets to have attached to the platoon. HAT in Arma 3 comes most typically in the form the Javelin missile.

Policy
FM/BP-120 - What classifies as a HAT weapon system?
Policy

A heavy anti-tank weapon system is an anti-tank weapon that meets the following criteria:

  • Is scoped
  • Is guided
  • Is re-loadable (in most cases)
  • Often has multiple round types for a variety of uses
AT Specialist (Heavy) prepares to fire the FGM-148 Javelin Missile

Above: AT Specialist (Heavy) prepares to fire the FGM-148 Javelin Missile

T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-121 - Use thermal optics to find targets
T-IV+ Skill
  • Use the thermal optics to find targets
  • Differentiate between active vehicles and disabled/destroyed vehicles
MH-6 Observer performs a battle damage assessment using thermal imaging

Above: MH-6 Observer performs a battle damage assessment using thermal imaging

T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-122 - Use the correct attack type for the correct job (top down vs direct)
T-IV+ Skill
  • Use top-down attack mode wherever possible to hit the top armour (almost always the weakest part of the vehicle).
  • Use direct attack mode in situations when firing from confined spaces, or forests where top-attack would be hazardous.
T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-127 - Prioritize vehicle targets
T-III+ Skill

Prioritize vehicle targets based on the following factors:

  • Urgency of the threat: immediate threats should be engaged first, with vehicles posing no threat either engaged last or not engaged at all.
  • Success chance: every engagement should have the highest possible likelihood to succeed. In any case, refrain from shooting when:
    • the target is out of range
    • the target is moving too fast
    • the target cannot be effectively damaged
  • Future considerations: do not engage vehicles when doing so might have negative effect later. e.g. shooting an AT-4 at technical, when expecting BMPs.
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