Basic marksmanship - UNITAF Force Manual (FM)


Basic marksmanship
The FM outlines our core skills, policies and guides to ensure every member stands ready for the mission ahead.

FM/BS-276 - Adjust your aiming point for range to target

Adjust your aiming point vertically relative to the target by:

  • estimating the distance to the target visually
  • adjusting based on previous shot impacts
FM/BS-298 - Adjust your aiming point for moving targets

Adjust your aiming point horizontally, relative to the target, by:

  • estimating the target speed visually
  • estimating the distance to the target visually
  • adjusting based on previous shot impacts
FM/BS-296 - Control weapon sway caused by breathing

Hold your breath when pulling the trigger to ensure steady aim.

Follow these principles for more effective breath control:

  • Be efficient and keep the held duration short to avoid getting winded.
  • Time your hold in the brief respiratory pause at the bottom of the movement cycle to better predict placement.
  • Learn to compensate for respiratory sway, as situations may arise that expose this technique as privileged for time.
FM/BS-283 - Take into account bore offset when aiming your rifle

When aiming your rifle, remember that at close ranges bullets will hit lower than what your sight is indicating because the sight is mounted above the barrel. This effect is even more pronounced if you are using the backup sights on a scope.

Sight line vs Bore line

Above: Sight line vs Bore line

FM/BS-297 - Use an appropriate shooting stance

Use an appropriate shooting stance for the engement while taking into account available cover, sight stability and mobility requirements.

FM/BG-407 - Choosing a shooting stance

Every shooting stance has advantages and disadvantages.


  • most visible shooter target profile
  • likely to clear ground-based obstacles with line of bore
  • quickest to assume
  • least stable, hardest to take long-range shots


  • makes use of ground-based cover such as rocks and low structures
  • reduces shooter target profile in the open
  • quick to assume
  • stable enough for extended-range shots
  • versatile


  • low profile
  • useful to clear obstacles low to the ground, such as grass, that otherwise hinder prone shooting
  • low mobility, rendering reaction to fire delayed
  • very stable


  • lowest profile
  • low mobility while still allowing lateral reactions to fire by combat rolling
  • capable of shooting underneath obstacles, including cars by adjusting stance down or left / right
  • most stable

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