Deployment debriefings - UNITAF Force Manual (FM)


Group

Deployment debriefings
The FM outlines our core skills, policies and guides to ensure every member stands ready for the mission ahead.



Guide
FM/BG-367 - What is a deployment debriefing
Guide

Debriefing is a structured feedback process for mission-specific insights, using the FM/BG-316 - Operational Chain of Command (OPCOC)

The process is hierarchical, starting with the smallest units. 

  • Fireteam leaders hold debriefs with their teams, then with their Squad Leader and other team leaders.
  • Squad Leaders debrief first with their team, then with the Platoon Leader and other Squad Leaders.
  • Riflemen and similar roles attend only the team debrief, while leaders participate in two sessions.

The debriefing sequence should mirror the mission's radio communication plan, starting internally (within the team) and then externally (higher command levels). Ultimately, each person submits an individual after action report but debriefings help all persons to form a better understanding of what went well and what didn't and apply those learnings forward into their next deployment. For a debriefing to be productive it must be organised and interruption free, with only the people that need to be there in order to foster honest feedback.

Policy
FM/BP-368 - Who can attend a debriefing
Policy

Debriefings are for reflecting on the performance of a specific element or callsign and attendance is restricted to:

  • immediate subordinates of the debriefing's element leader
  • the element leader
  • others permitted by the element leader, including 
    • supervisors in training roles
    • senior ORGCOC members (CO, XO)
    • field leaders or game masters, provided that they:
      • obtain permission from the element leader before joining
      • remain on mute and refrain from speaking during the debriefing

Element leaders should judiciously expand attendance to maintain an environment conducive to honest subordinate feedback.

Policy
FM/BP-369 - Debriefing Rules
Policy
  1. Focus constructively on improvement, not mistakes.
  2. Speak only when addressed by the element leader.
  3. Follow the succession of command if the element leader is absent.
  4. Use debriefings solely for operational reflection, not personal issues.
    • Report policy violations privately through a dossier observation.
  5. Avoid speaking out of turn or interrupting others.
  6. Concentrate on self-reflection; avoid critiquing others.
  7. Limit debriefings to 
    • up to 10 minutes for fireteams
    • up to 20 minutes for larger elements
    • individual total debriefing time per mission should not exceed 30 minutes.
Policy
FM/BP-370 - Debriefing Process
Policy

Conduct

  • Each element conducts its debriefing, led by the element leader.
  • Only immediate subordinates of the element leader are allowed to attend.
  • No other attendance or speaking is permitted, except as outlined in FM/BP-368 - Who can attend a debriefing.

Levels and Participants

  • Fireteam: Led by Fireteam Leader; subordinates are team members.
  • Squad: Led by Squad Leader; subordinates are Fireteam Leaders.
  • Platoon: Led by Platoon Leader; subordinates are Squad Leaders.
  • Company: Led by Company Commander; subordinates are Platoon Leaders.
  • Attachments: Led by the Element Leader or for example JTAC/FO from HQ Element

Procedure

  • The element leader asks each subordinate, in reverse order of seniority, for feedback.
  • Feedback includes: successes, issues, and suggestions for improvement.
  • Each person speaks uninterrupted, followed by the next subordinate.

Leaders' Role

  • The element leader may comment or question after each feedback.
  • After all have spoken, the leader may allow further comments if permitted.
  • The leader summarizes the feedback and provides their own insights.
  • The leader concludes the debrief and reports to their superior.

The process ascends through the OPCOC hierarchy to the higher headquarters.

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