Dealing with wounds - UNITAF Force Manual (FM)


Dealing with wounds
The FM outlines our core skills, policies and guides to ensure every member stands ready for the mission ahead.

FM/BG-444 - Types of wounds

Abrasions (or scrapes)

  • They occur when the skin is rubbed away by friction against another rough surface.
  • Sources: falling, vehicle crashes.
  • Effects: pain - extremely light, bleeding - extremely slowly.


  • Occur when an entire structure or part of it is forcibly pulled away, such as the loss of a permanent tooth or an ear lobe.
  • Sources: explosions, vehicle crashes, grenades, artillery shells, bullets, backblast.
  • Effects: pain - extremely high, bleeding - extremely fast (depends on wound size).

Contusions (Bruises)

  • Also called bruises, these are the result of a forceful trauma that injures an internal structure without breaking the skin.
  • Sources: bullets, backblast, vehicle crashes, falling.
  • Effects: pain - light, no bleeding.

Crush wounds (crushed tissue)

  • Occur when a heavy object falls onto a person, splitting the skin and shattering or tearing underlying structures.
  • Sources: falling, vehicle crashes.
  • Effects: pain - light, bleeding - extremely slowly.

Cut wound

  • Slicing wounds made with a sharp instrument, leaving even edges.
  • Sources: vehicle crashes, grenades, explosions, artillery shells, backblast.
  • Effects: pain - light, bleeding - speed depends on length and size of the wound.

Lacerations (tears)

  • These are separating wounds that produce ragged edges.
  • Sources: vehicle crashes.
  • Effects: pain - light, bleeding - slow to medium speed (depends on wound size).

Velocity wounds

  • They are caused by an object entering the body at a high speed, typically a bullet or small pieces of shrapnel.
  • Sources: bullets, grenades, explosions, artillery shells.
  • Effects: pain - extremely high, bleeding - medium speed (depends on wound size).

Puncture wounds

  • Deep, narrow wounds produced by sharp objects such as nails, knives, and broken glass.
  • Sources: shrapnel, grenades.
  • Effects: pain - light, bleeding - slowly.


  • Fractures cause pain, increased weapon sway (when arms) or inability to jog or run forcing the player into a limp (when legs). 
  • Fractures in ACE3 are not fatal. So are far lower on the priority list in regards to treatment. 
  • Focus on stabilising the patient first, then once stable, apply a splint to their fractured limb/s.
FM/BS-445 - Use the most effective bandage available to close wounds

Wherever practically possible using the correct bandage is essential for efficient wound management.

  • Elastic Bandage: Quick closure for many wounds; use when speed is key and durability isn't crucial.
  • Packing Bandage: Ideal in combat; designed for immediate bleeding control.
  • QuickClot Bandage: For non-combat situations; speeds up clotting when stitching isn't an option soon.
  • Field Dressing (Basic) Bandage: A versatile option when others aren’t available; useful for initial wound care.


  • Situation: Combat status and resource availability.

Chooses based on the situation, wound type, and available resources for best outcomes.

FM/BS-208 - Use tourniquets to prevent blood loss from wounds

Use tourniquets to temporarily prevent bleeding from all the wounds on a limb, when individually bandaging the wounds would result in unacceptable blood loss.

FM/BS-202 - Prioritise the most severe wounds
  • Prioritise the treatment of wounds by evaluating the severity and rate of blood loss. 
  • Address the most severe wounds first to reduce overall blood loss, and then proceed to less critical wounds, employing appropriate bandaging techniques.
FM/BS-207 - Use splints to treat broken limbs

Use splints to temporarily treat broken limbs, until a personal aid kit can be used to restore full usage of the limb later.

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