Universal Concepts - Target recognition - UNITAF Force Manual (FM)




Universal Concepts - Target recognition
The FM outlines our core skills, policies and guides to ensure every member stands ready for the mission ahead.



FM/G18 - Vehicle class identification

Guide
FM/BG-101 - Vehicle identification overview
Guide

Vehicle identification is a useful skill for anyone on the battlefield, and a requirement for many of the more specialised roles. While some vehicles pose only a minimal threat, some can halt an entire platoon by themselves. As such accurate identification is crucial to good situational awareness, planning and tasking.

  • Identifying a vehicle can be done at three levels of depth:
    • Vehicle class
    • Subclass within vehicle class
    • Specific vehicle model
  • Not all vehicles within a class fall under a subclass.
  • Vehicle identification covers only military vehicles. 
  • Any other vehicle should be referred to by it's common name, e.g.
    • pickup 
    • truck
    • bicycle
    • jetski
Guide
FM/BG-129 - Common terminology for vehicle identification
Guide
  • Auto-cannon: an automatic gun with a caliber between 20-60 mm
  • Cannon: a gun bigger than an auto-cannon
  • Direct fire: firing a weapon within the line-of-sight of the user of the weapon in a (relatively) flat trajectory
  • Indirect fire: firing a weapon outside the line-of-sight of the user of the weapon
Skill
FM/BS-102 - Identify light vehicles
Skill

Rapidly identify a light vehicle as being:

  • Wheeled
  • Not armed with an autocannon or larger
  • Not classified as an AFV

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • Technical: civilian vehicle adapted for military use
  • MRAP: mine resistant and protected against small arms
  • Truck: military truck
A column of US Army M1114 uparmored HMMWV (or Humvee)

Above: A column of US Army M1114 uparmored HMMWV (or Humvee)

Skill
FM/BS-103 - Identify AFVs
Skill

Rapidly identify a AFV as being:

  • Wheeled or tracked
  • Armed with nothing to cannon, intended for direct fire
  • Protected against at least small arms

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • APC: armed with up to a heavy machine-gun
  • IFV: armed with an autocannon
  • Assault gun: armed with a cannon
  • ATGM carrier: armed with ATGMs (anti-tank guided missile)
US Army M1126 Stryker AFV on patrol

Above: US Army M1126 Stryker AFV on patrol

Skill
FM/BS-104 - Identify tanks
Skill

Rapidly identify a tank as being:

  • Tracked
  • Turreted
  • Protected against at least auto-cannon fire
  • Having a cannon capable and intended for direct fire

There are no subclasses.

A section of US Army M1A2 SEPv2 Tanks engaging enemy forces

Above: A section of US Army M1A2 SEPv2 Tanks engaging enemy forces

Skill
FM/BS-108 - Identify artillery
Skill

Rapidly identify artillery as being:

  • Towed, wheeled or tracked
  • Having a cannon or rocket tubes intended for indirect fire

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • Towed artillery: cannot move by itself
  • Self propelled artillery: cannon/rocket tubes is mounted on a wheeled or tracked vehicle
M119 Howitzer towed artillery unit in it's deployed configuration

Above: M119 Howitzer towed artillery unit in it's deployed configuration

Skill
FM/BS-105 - Identify anti-air
Skill

Rapidly identify anti-air being:

  • Primarily inteded for engaging helicopters or planes

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • AAA (anti-air artillery): primary armament is one or more guns
  • SAM: primary armament is surface-to-air missiles
ZSU-23 Shilka Anti-Aircraft System

Above: ZSU-23 Shilka Anti-Aircraft System

Skill
FM/BS-109 - Identify helicopters
Skill

Rapidly identify a helicopter as being:

  • Capable of powered flight
  • Generating lift with one or more horizontally spinning fixed rotors

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • Utility helicopter: armament is only intended for self defense (e.g. a door gun)
  • Attack helicopter: armament is intended for offensive use (e.g. rocket pods)
US Army AH-64D Apache Gunship

Above: US Army AH-64D Apache Gunship

Skill
FM/BS-465 - Identify tiltrotor aircraft
Skill

Rapidly identify tiltrotor aircraft as being:

  • Capable of powered flight
  • Generating lift with one or more horizontally spinning rotors capable of rotating in flight

There are no subclasses.

Skill
FM/BS-107 - Identify planes
Skill

Rapidly identify a plane as being:

  • Capable of powered flight
  • Generating lift with wings

Those at higher proficiency are able to identify the subclasses as:

  • Cargo plane: military plane used to ferry cargo or passengers
  • Attack plane: slower flying aircraft intended for ground attack
  • Fighter plane: fast flying aircraft intended to fight other planes
US Air Force A-10A Warthog releasing a GBU-48 Enhanced Paveway II

Above: US Air Force A-10A Warthog releasing a GBU-48 Enhanced Paveway II

FM/G24 - Vehicle model identification

Guide
FM/BG-130 - Identifying a BTR-60/70/80
Guide

As the main APC of the Soviet/Russian army the BTR has a crew of 3 that sits at the front, a passenger compartment in the middle with a door on each side of the vehicle and a rear-mounted engine. It is armed with either a 14.5mm MG or a 30mm auto-cannon and is amphibious. 

When targeting this vehicle you should: shoot at it frontally or from the rear, as side shots are tricky and it is easy to hit the passenger compartment missing vital components.

A pair of Chedaki BTR-60 APCs

Above: A pair of Chedaki BTR-60 APCs

Guide
FM/BG-131 - Identifying a BMP-1
Guide

The BMP-1 is one of the most common types of Soviet/Russian IFVs, it has a crew of 3 that sits in the middle of the vehicle, a passenger compartment in the rear and a front mounted engine. It is armed with a 76mm cannon, and some versions are also equipped with an ATGM and is amphibious. 

When targeting this vehicle you should: shoot frontally or from the side and from the rear only with APFSDS. Shooting from the front will take out the engine, when shooting from the side aim from the front half of the vehicle, as everything behind the turret is passenger compartment. Hitting from the rear will not damage the vehicle unless it can penetrate deep into the vehicle.

A pair of Russian BMP-1 IFVs

Above: A pair of Russian BMP-1 IFVs

Guide
FM/BG-132 - Identifying a BMP-2
Guide

The BMP-2 is an improved BMP-1 equipped with a 30mm autocannon instead of the 76mm cannon.

Russian BMP-2M IFV

Above: Russian BMP-2M IFV

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