Medical Handbook - UNITAF Force Manual (FM)




Medical Handbook
The FM outlines our core skills, policies and guides to ensure every member stands ready for the mission ahead.



FM/G12 - Medical system philosophy

Guide
FM/BG-59 - Medical System Overview
Guide

UNITAF uses medical in a unique way to achieve our aims. This approach is what influences most decisions in relation to changes in medical procedures. 

UNITAF uses at its core the advanced configured ACE Medical system for Arma 3 with an additional KAT Medical expansion, although we have modified these to suit our needs. The system introduces a more realistic and immersive model for injuries and treatments, this results in a more prominent role for combat medics and gives players a bigger incentive to play as a team.

Advanced medical introduces the following:

  • A detailed wound system, including fractures
  • Accurate blood loss based upon sustained injuries
  • Vitals simulation, including heart rate and blood pressure
  • Cardiac arrest events
  • Various modular treatment methods such as;
    • CPR,
    • IVs
    • drugs
    • tourniquet
    • bandages
    • splints
Policy
FM/BP-61 - Realism
Policy

Although our system mimics real military operations, it's essential to recognize the game mechanics underlying death and serious injuries. The objective is to maintain a balance between realism, gaming and specifically discouraging carelessness in actions.

Policy
FM/BP-62 - Player Consequence
Policy

The most important element of a medical system is to provide consequence to actions, catching a shot in the arm should provide a small inconvenience for the player, and being hit 5 times in the chest should provide a much greater one. We have never used respawns or reinsertions as a primary method of player consequence primarily because they are no consequence to the player.

Policy
FM/BP-63 - Unit Consequence
Policy

All persons in a team, squad, platoon and company should have to deal with casualties as they mount, whilst still focusing on their objectives at large. They should have to make quick decisions on how to deal with any situation as it arises. Medical consequences should extend beyond individual players. All unit members, irrespective of their roles, are impacted by increasing casualties, emphasising prompt decision-making and adherence to objectives.

Policy
FM/BP-64 - Overall Consequence
Policy

Both individual players and the wider unit need to be acutely aware of and impacted by consequences. This necessitates the creation of deterrents and considerations for player actions.

Policy
FM/BP-65 - Teamwork
Policy

At the heart of UNITAF's operations is the emphasis on large-scale teamwork. This mandates the need for collaborative efforts in medical procedures, ensuring shared responsibilities and a unified approach to challenges.

Policy
FM/BP-66 - ACE/KAT Medical Settings
Policy

ACE medical

  • Wound Reopening / Advanced Bandages: Enabled
  • PAK Usage: Medics only, not CLS
    • In smaller operations, PAK may be permitted "in the field"
    • In larger operations, PAK is only permitted “off the field” requiring medical vehicles or facilities
  • Primary Weapon must be slinged or holstered before you can tend to any casualties
  • Morphine Usage: CLS and above
  • Epinephrine Usage: CLS and above
  • Fracture Chance: 0.4
  • PAK Consumed: Yes
  • Stitching Kit Consumed: No
  • Stitching Location: Anywhere

 

KAT - ADV medical: airway

  • KingLT usage: Squad medic and above
  • Geudeltube usage: CLS
  • Accuvas usage: Platoon medic and above

 

KAT - ADV medical: breathing

  • Lethal SPO2 value: Enabled
  • Pulse oximeter: Squad medic and above

 

KAT - ADV medical: circulation

  • AED usage: Platoon medic
  • AED-X Usage: MERT,MT and SF medics
  • AED location: Anywhere

 

KAT - ADV medical: pharmacy

  • Coagulation: Disabled
  • Amiodarone: MERT. MT and SF medic
  • Atropine: Combat Medic and above (only when required by mission)
  • Fluids and medication: Require IV/IO inserted
  • IV/IO drop time: 6 minutes
  • Carbonate: CLS
  • TXA: Platoon medic and above
  • EACA: Platoon medic and above
  • Fentanyl: Platoon medic and above
  • IO: MERT , MT and SF medic
  • IV: Combat medic and above
  • Lidocaine: MERT, MT and SF medic
  • Norepinephrine: Squad medic and above
  • Phenylephirne: Squad medic and above

FM/G85 - Bandages

Guide
FM/BG-436 - Introduction to Bandages
Guide

All personnel are equipped with bandages to provide initial treatment for wounds until they can receive more advanced medical care. There are four distinct types of bandages, each varying in the time required for application and the duration of effectiveness. 

  • Elastic bandages are recommended for situations where quick application is crucial, despite their lower durability. 
  • QuikClot bandages are best for long-lasting wound protection, offering the highest endurance. 
  • Packing bandages present a balanced option, optimising for application speed, wound coverage, and durability.
Guide
FM/BG-437 - Field Dressings (Basic Bandage)
Guide

Field dressings also known as Bandage (Basic) are the most fundamental type of bandages available to us, primarily used for managing low-priority wounds quickly, as well as for treating crush and puncture wounds effectively.

A Field Dressing as seen in the inventory

Above: A Field Dressing as seen in the inventory

Guide
FM/BG-438 - Elastic Bandages
Guide

Elastic bandages are valued for their rapid application and effectiveness in temporarily closing wounds. They are often the preferred choice in scenarios involving severely injured individuals or mass casualty incidents because of their speed of use. However, their low durability means they must be replaced frequently. Since they do not promote blood coagulation, once they come off, bleeding is likely to restart.

A Elastic Bandage as seen in the inventory

Above: A Elastic Bandage as seen in the inventory

Guide
FM/BG-439 - Packing Bandages
Guide

Packing bandages, although not quite as efficient as elastic bandages in closing wounds, offer significantly greater durability. This feature makes them ideal for situations where a medic is unable to suture wounds promptly. Like elastic bandages, packing bandages also do not promote blood coagulation.

A Packing Bandage as seen in the inventory

Above: A Packing Bandage as seen in the inventory

Guide
FM/BG-440 - QuickClot Bandages
Guide

QuikClot bandages are notably less efficient at closing wounds compared to elastic bandages, requiring more time and patience for application. This makes them a slower option than both elastic and packing bandages. However, QuikClot bandages offer significant advantages: they are durable and facilitate blood coagulation, allowing for a "set and forget" approach to wound care. This characteristic is especially valuable in scenarios with fewer wounds or when Combat Life Savers (CLS) or medical personnel are not immediately available. It's important to note, however, that QuikClot bandages are slightly less effective on crush and laceration wounds.

A QuickClot Bandage as seen in the inventory

Above: A QuickClot Bandage as seen in the inventory

FM/G86 - Basic Medical Equipment

Policy
FM/BP-397 - Role specific: Medics
Policy

Combat Life Saver

A CCL including the following additional items:

EquipmentMinimumOptimal
Elastic Bandage20x40x
Packing Bandage10x20x
Quikclot10x20x
Epinephrine Auto Injector4x8x
Guedel Tube2x8x
Morphine Auto Injector2x8x
Splint4x6x
Surgical Kit1x1x
Tourniquet8x10x
Ammonium Carbonate1x4x
Painkillers1x4x
Purple Smoke Grenade2x2x

Combat Medic

A CCL including the following additional items:

EquipmentMinimumOptimal
16g IV4x10x
Elastic Bandage20x40x
Packing Bandage10x20x
Quikclot10x20x
Blood (1000ml)5x5x
Blood (500ml)5x5x
Blood (250ml)Optional10x
Epinephrine Auto Injector2x10x
King LT2x8x
Morphine Auto Injector2x10x
Personal Aid Kit1x1x
Splint4x6x
Surgical Kit1x1x
Tourniquet8x10x
Ammonium Carbonate1x4x
Painkillers1x4x
Purple Smoke Grenade2x2x

Squad Medic

As per Combat Medic, with the following changes:

  • Norepinephrine: +4 units minimal, +8 units optimal.
  • Phenylephrine: +4 units minimal, +6 units optimal.
  • Pulse Oximeter: +1

 

Platoon Medic

A CCL including the following additional items:

EquipmentMinimumOptimal
16g IV4x10x
Accuvac1x1x
Automated External Defibrillator1x1x
Elastic Bandage20x40x
Packing Bandage10x20x
Quikclot10x20x
Blood (1000ml)5x5x
Blood (500ml)5x5x
Blood (250ml)Optional5x
BodybagOptional1x
EACA4x10x
Epinephrine Auto Injector2x10x
FentanylOptional4x
Field Blood Transfusion Kit (250ml)Optional2x
Field Blood Transfusion Kit (500ml)Optional2x
KingLT2x8x
Morphine Auto Injector2x10x
Norepinephrine4x8x
Personal Aid KitOptional1x
Phenylephrine4x6x
Pulse Oximeter1x1x
Splint4x6x
Surgical Kit1x1x
Tourniquet8x10x
TXA4x8x
Ammonium Carbonate1x4x
Painkillers1x4x
Purple Smoke Grenade2x2x

SF Medic

A CCL including the following additional items:

EquipmentMinimumOptimal
16g IV4x10x
AED-X1x1x
Amiodarone2x6x
Elastic Bandage20x30x
Packing Bandage10x20x
Quikclot10x20x
Blood (1000ml)5x5x
Blood (500ml)5x5x
Blood (250ml)Optional5x
BodybagOptional1x
EACA4x6x
Epinephrine Auto Injector2x10x
FAST IO2x6x
Field Blood Transfusion Kit (250ml)Optional2x
Field Blood Transfusion Kit (500ml)Optional2x
KingLT2x8x
Lidocaine2x6x
Morphine Auto Injector2x10x
Norepinephrine4x8x
Personal Aid KitOptional1x
Phenylephrine4x6x
Splint4x6x
Surgical Kit1x1x
Tourniquet8x10x
TXA4x8x
Ammonium Carbonate1x4x
Painkillers1x4x
Purple Smoke Grenade2x2x

Technicians from a Medical Emergency Response Team (MERT) and Combat Medical Team (CMT)

All roles must contain a CCL in addition to:

  • MERT roles may in addition include Flight Crew uniforms/helmets
EquipmentMinimumOptimal
16g IV4x10x
Accuvac1x1x
AED-X1x1x
Amiodarone2x6x
Elastic Bandage20x40x
Packing Bandage10x20x
Quikclot10x20x
Blood (1000ml)5x5x
Blood (500ml)5x5x
Blood (250ml)Optional5x
BodybagOptional1x
EACA4x10x
Epinephrine Auto Injector4x10x
FAST IO2x6x
FentanylOptional4x
Field Blood Transfusion Kit (250ml)Optional2x
Field Blood Transfusion Kit (500ml)Optional2x
KingLT2x8x
Lidocaine2x6x
Morphine Auto Injector2x10x
Norepinephrine4x8x
Personal Aid KitOptional1x
Phenylephrine4x6x
Pulse Oximeter1x1x
Splint6x6x
Tourniquet8x10x
TXA4x8x
Ammonium Carbonate1x4x
Painkillers1x4x
Purple Smoke Grenade2x2x

MERT/CMT Leader/Officer

  • Long Range Radio
  • CCL
  • The same medical equipment as the technicians above.
Guide
FM/BG-441 - Tourniquets
Guide

Tourniquets are used to restrict blood flow to an injured limb, effectively halting bleeding as a temporary measure. This is particularly useful in situations where a casualty has multiple wounds, allowing you to prioritise which injuries to address first. 

However, tourniquets also have drawbacks: they make it impossible to check the pulse or blood pressure in the affected limb. Moreover, if left in place for an extended period, they can cause significant pain. Additionally, tourniquets inhibit the administration of medications and the performance of blood transfusions to the injured limb.

A Tourniquet as seen in the inventory

Above: A Tourniquet as seen in the inventory

Guide
FM/BG-442 - Splints
Guide

Splints are designed to support broken limbs, enabling a partial restoration of the limb's mobility and function as a temporary solution until more comprehensive treatment can be administered.

A Splint as seen in the inventory

Above: A Splint as seen in the inventory

Guide
FM/BG-443 - Personal Aid Kits (PAK)
Guide

Personal Aid Kits (PAK) represent a significant advancement in medical technology, providing medics with the capability to fully restore a patient's vital signs and bodily functions. In practice, this means healing all wounds and mending broken limbs. However, the use of PAKs necessitates medical expertise and typically requires support from medical vehicles or facilities to ensure proper application.

A Personal Aid Kit (PAK) as seen in the inventory

Above: A Personal Aid Kit (PAK) as seen in the inventory

FM/G37 - Buddy care

Guide
FM/BG-431 - Step 1: Report
Guide
  • As soon as a person is wounded, you should immediately inform your Chain of Command about the incident and the casualty.
  • Provide a brief report that includes the number of casualties and the location, which will help in planning an immediate medical response.
  • Use clear and concise communication to ensure the message is understood.
Guide
FM/BG-430 - Step 2: Secure
Guide
  • Prioritise safety by first winning the firefight to reduce further risk to yourself and the casualty.
  • If the situation is too dangerous to administer first aid on the spot, use the ace interaction to drag or carry the casualty to a safer location, such as behind cover or a concealed area away from immediate threat.
Guide
FM/BG-432 - Step 3: Immediate Treatment (B.A.B.E)
Guide

Bleeding

  • Quickly apply tourniquets to bleeding limbs or bandages if no other areas are wounded. 
  • Aim for this to take no longer than 30 seconds. 
  • If there's significant blood loss, call for advanced medical help.

Airway: Check the airway in the medical menu. 

  • If occluded, turn the head until it's clear. 
  • If obstructed, hyperextend the head within 2 meters to maintain clearance.

Beating Heart:

  • Check pulse
  • If there's no heart rate
    • Perform CPR for two minutes by selecting it when the chest is highlighted. 
    • Re-check the pulse afterward.

Evacuation

  • Move the casualty to a Casualty Collection Point (CCP) for medical personnel to take over.
An infographic summarizing first aid procedures for bleeding control, airway management, resuscitation, and casualty evacuation, with specific instructions for severe blood loss and shock treatment.

Above: An infographic summarizing first aid procedures for bleeding control, airway management, resuscitation, and casualty evacuation, with specific instructions for severe blood loss and shock treatment.

Guide
FM/BG-433 - Step 4: Treat Other Injuries
Guide

After addressing life-threatening bleeding and airway issues, assess the casualty for other injuries.

  • Start with untreated wounds on the head and chest. 
    • Bandage these areas thoroughly because you can't use tourniquets here, and injuries to these regions can be critical.
  • Move on to limbs with the least severe wounds. 
    • This helps to stabilise the casualty but also streamlines the process for incoming medical personnel.
  • After bandaging, if you identify any broken limbs, apply splints.
Guide
FM/BG-434 - Step 5: Monitor
Guide

Continue to monitor the casualty's condition by regularly checking their breathing, bleeding, and consciousness.

  • Repeat the treatments from Steps 3 and 4 as necessary this includes;
    • checking and reapplying bandages
    • ensuring airways remain clear
    • monitoring for signs of circulation.
  • Stay with the casualty until they regain consciousness or until medical personnel arrive. 
  • Provide updates to medical personnel upon their arrival and assist as directed.

If you are instructed by medical personnel or your duties require you to rejoin your unit, ensure that the casualty is left in capable hands before departing.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-167 - Give first aid to an unconscious patient
T-I+ Skill

When giving first aid to a patient, follow the following steps:

  • Minimize long term blood loss in 30 seconds or less (time it takes to apply 4 tourniquets or 3 bandages)
    • if unsure, tourniquet wounded limbs
  • Manage the airway
  • Perform further treatment as needed

FM/G87 - Dealing with wounds

Guide
FM/BG-444 - Types of wounds
Guide

Abrasions (or scrapes)

  • They occur when the skin is rubbed away by friction against another rough surface.
  • Sources: falling, vehicle crashes.
  • Effects: pain - extremely light, bleeding - extremely slowly.

Avulsions

  • Occur when an entire structure or part of it is forcibly pulled away, such as the loss of a permanent tooth or an ear lobe.
  • Sources: explosions, vehicle crashes, grenades, artillery shells, bullets, backblast.
  • Effects: pain - extremely high, bleeding - extremely fast (depends on wound size).

Contusions (Bruises)

  • Also called bruises, these are the result of a forceful trauma that injures an internal structure without breaking the skin.
  • Sources: bullets, backblast, vehicle crashes, falling.
  • Effects: pain - light, no bleeding.

Crush wounds (crushed tissue)

  • Occur when a heavy object falls onto a person, splitting the skin and shattering or tearing underlying structures.
  • Sources: falling, vehicle crashes.
  • Effects: pain - light, bleeding - extremely slowly.

Cut wound

  • Slicing wounds made with a sharp instrument, leaving even edges.
  • Sources: vehicle crashes, grenades, explosions, artillery shells, backblast.
  • Effects: pain - light, bleeding - speed depends on length and size of the wound.

Lacerations (tears)

  • These are separating wounds that produce ragged edges.
  • Sources: vehicle crashes.
  • Effects: pain - light, bleeding - slow to medium speed (depends on wound size).

Velocity wounds

  • They are caused by an object entering the body at a high speed, typically a bullet or small pieces of shrapnel.
  • Sources: bullets, grenades, explosions, artillery shells.
  • Effects: pain - extremely high, bleeding - medium speed (depends on wound size).

Puncture wounds

  • Deep, narrow wounds produced by sharp objects such as nails, knives, and broken glass.
  • Sources: shrapnel, grenades.
  • Effects: pain - light, bleeding - slowly.

Fractures

  • Fractures cause pain, increased weapon sway (when arms) or inability to jog or run forcing the player into a limp (when legs). 
  • Fractures in ACE3 are not fatal. So are far lower on the priority list in regards to treatment. 
  • Focus on stabilising the patient first, then once stable, apply a splint to their fractured limb/s.
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-445 - Use the most effective bandage available to close wounds
T-I+ Skill

Wherever practically possible using the correct bandage is essential for efficient wound management.

  • Elastic Bandage: Quick closure for many wounds; use when speed is key and durability isn't crucial.
  • Packing Bandage: Ideal in combat; designed for immediate bleeding control.
  • QuickClot Bandage: For non-combat situations; speeds up clotting when stitching isn't an option soon.
  • Field Dressing (Basic) Bandage: A versatile option when others aren’t available; useful for initial wound care.

Considerations

  • Situation: Combat status and resource availability.

Chooses based on the situation, wound type, and available resources for best outcomes.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-208 - Use tourniquets to prevent blood loss from wounds
T-I+ Skill

Use tourniquets to temporarily prevent bleeding from all the wounds on a limb, when individually bandaging the wounds would result in unacceptable blood loss.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-202 - Prioritise the most severe wounds
T-I+ Skill
  • Prioritise the treatment of wounds by evaluating the severity and rate of blood loss. 
  • Address the most severe wounds first to reduce overall blood loss, and then proceed to less critical wounds, employing appropriate bandaging techniques.
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-207 - Use splints to treat broken limbs
T-I+ Skill

Use splints to temporarily treat broken limbs, until a personal aid kit can be used to restore full usage of the limb later.

FM/G88 - Dealing with obstructed or occluded airways

Guide
FM/BG-435 - Understanding airways
Guide

Airways can become blocked when a casualty is unconscious, when rendering first aid the airway should be checked to see if it is blocked or occluded if this is not treated, then it will result in death of the casualty.

Airways can be cleared by turning or hyperextending the head or by using other advanced medical equipment. Once clear, a patient can be placed in the recovery position.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-163 - Assess the airway
T-I+ Skill

Assess the airway with “check airways” and categorize as one of the following states:

  • Clear
  • Occluded
  • Obstructed
The location of the

Above: The location of the "Check Airway" action and the result as seen in the activity log

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-263 - Turn the head to clear an occluded airway
T-I+ Skill

Turn the patient's head to clear the occluded airway of the patient if an Accuvac is not available.

Action as seen in the medical menu

Above: Action as seen in the medical menu

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-266 - Hyperextend the head to clear an obstructed airway
T-I+ Skill

Hyperextend the patient's head to clear the obstructed airway of the patient, and stay within 2m of the patient during the process.

Action as seen in the medical menu

Above: Action as seen in the medical menu

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-261 - Put the patient in the recovery position to keep the airway clear
T-I+ Skill

Place the patient into a recovery position to keep the airway clear, if they:

  • are stable
  • do not need to be moved

FM/G89 - Dealing with pain

Guide
FM/BG-212 - Understanding pain
Guide

Pain is typically caused by wounds and the prolonged use of tourniquets. Increased pain can effect weapon sway, stamina, vision and cause audible moaning. Painkillers can be used to suppress pain for first aid, however more advanced suppression is possible using morphine or fentanyl.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-209 - Use painkillers to manage pain
T-I+ Skill
  • Administer or take painkillers to decrease pain by about 30%
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 6 pills every 10 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • a slight increase in heart rate
    • a decrease in blood pressure

FM/G90 - Checking pulse and performing CPR

Guide
FM/BG-446 - Understanding heart rate
Guide

You can check the pulse of any non-tourniqueted bodypart and the result returned will be descriptive for non-medical personnel or an accurate value for medical personnel, the possible results are:

  • No heart rate (0)
  • Low heart rate (1-60)
  • Normal heart rate (60-100)
  • High heart rate (100+)

Some drugs will influence heart rate.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-224 - Use CPR to restore a normal heart rate when a patient has no heart rate
T-I+ Skill

After identifying a patient with no heart rate

  1. Perform CPR for at least 30 seconds
  2. Check pulse
  3. If no heart rate, repeat

Checking a patient's pulse whilst someone else is performing CPR or checking pulse on a limb with a tourniquet placed will provide an erroneous reading. 

FM/G40 - Casualty triage

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-188 - Identify the triage category of a patient
T-I+ Skill
  • Categorize a patient as CAT-1 IMMEDIATE if they:
    • are bleeding
    • lost a large or a fatal amount of blood
    • have blocked airways
    • are in cardiac arrest
  • Categorize a patient as CAT-2 DELAYED if they:
    • are unconscious
    • are not actively bleeding
    • have lost some or a lot of blood
    • have clear airways
    • are not in cardiac arrest
  • Categorize a patient as CAT-3 MINIMAL if they:
    • are conscious
    • require medical attention
  • Categorize a patient as CAT-4 DECEASED if they:
    • are dead
    • are wounded beyond recoverability
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-189 - Prioritize casualties based on triage
T-I+ Skill
  • Prioritize patients in order of triage:
    • CAT-1 IMMEDIATE
    • CAT-2 DELAYED
    • CAT-3 MINIMAL
  • Within the same triage category prioritize patients in the following order:
    • People close to waking up
    • Medical personnel
    • Leadership
    • Force multipliers
    • Others

FM/G44 - Wound management

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-267 - Use a stitching kit to close wounds
T-I+ Skill

Use a stitching kit on a body part to permanently close all currently closed wounds on that body part.

T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-356 - Use TXA to automatically bandage wounds
T-IV+ Skill
  • Administer TXA to automatically apply a packing bandage every 6 seconds
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 3 times every 2 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • TXA can only be administered through IV or Fast IO
T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-357 - Use EACA to automatically stitch wounds
T-IV+ Skill
  • Administer EACA to automatically stitch a wound every 6 seconds
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 10 times every 10 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • EACA can only be administered through IV or Fast IO
T-II+ Skill
FM/BS-358 - Use a Personal Aid Kit to heal a patient
T-II+ Skill

A personal aid kit removes all injuries, to use a PAK the patient must be stable, the requirements of being stable are:

  • is not actively bleeding
  • has a heart rate
  • is responsive 
  • can still have tourniquets on
  • has not lost more than some blood

FM/G36 - Airway management

Guide
FM/BG-435 - Understanding airways
Guide

Airways can become blocked when a casualty is unconscious, when rendering first aid the airway should be checked to see if it is blocked or occluded if this is not treated, then it will result in death of the casualty.

Airways can be cleared by turning or hyperextending the head or by using other advanced medical equipment. Once clear, a patient can be placed in the recovery position.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-163 - Assess the airway
T-I+ Skill

Assess the airway with “check airways” and categorize as one of the following states:

  • Clear
  • Occluded
  • Obstructed
The location of the

Above: The location of the "Check Airway" action and the result as seen in the activity log

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-263 - Turn the head to clear an occluded airway
T-I+ Skill

Turn the patient's head to clear the occluded airway of the patient if an Accuvac is not available.

Action as seen in the medical menu

Above: Action as seen in the medical menu

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-262 - Use the Accuvac to clear an occluded airway
T-III+ Skill

Use the Accuvac to clear the occluded airway of a patient.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-266 - Hyperextend the head to clear an obstructed airway
T-I+ Skill

Hyperextend the patient's head to clear the obstructed airway of the patient, and stay within 2m of the patient during the process.

Action as seen in the medical menu

Above: Action as seen in the medical menu

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-261 - Put the patient in the recovery position to keep the airway clear
T-I+ Skill

Place the patient into a recovery position to keep the airway clear, if they:

  • are stable
  • do not need to be moved
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-264 - Use a guedeltube to prevent obstruction of the airway
T-I+ Skill

Use a guedeltube to prevent obstruction of the airway after the airway has been cleared, if a King LT is not available.

T-II+ Skill
FM/BS-265 - Use a King LT to keep the airway clear
T-II+ Skill

Use a King LT to keep the airway clear after it has been cleared.

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-359 - Use a pulse oximeter to monitor patient breathing
T-III+ Skill

Use pulse oximeter to monitor a patients blood oxygen levels, with low levels indicating the patient is not breathing normally.

FM/G46 - Pain management

Guide
FM/BG-212 - Understanding pain
Guide

Pain is typically caused by wounds and the prolonged use of tourniquets. Increased pain can effect weapon sway, stamina, vision and cause audible moaning. Painkillers can be used to suppress pain for first aid, however more advanced suppression is possible using morphine or fentanyl.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-209 - Use painkillers to manage pain
T-I+ Skill
  • Administer or take painkillers to decrease pain by about 30%
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 6 pills every 10 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • a slight increase in heart rate
    • a decrease in blood pressure
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-210 - Use morphine to manage pain
T-I+ Skill
  • Administer or take morphine to decrease pain by about 80%
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 4 times every 30 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • a decrease in heart rate
    • a decrease in blood pressure
T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-211 - Use fentanyl to manage pain
T-III+ Skill
  • Administer or take fentanyl to decrease pain by about 100%
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than once every 15 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • a slight increase in heart rate
    • a decrease in blood pressure
    • blurry vision (chromatic abberation)

FM/G45 - Fluids management

Guide
FM/BG-309 - Blood levels and their effects
Guide

Our system assumes that an individual with full blood volume intact has 6 litres of blood, the current amount of blood loss is shown on the medical menu at all times, if relevant.

  • Lost some blood
    • the patient has lost up to 0.9 litres of blood
    • the patient does not suffer significantly from the blood loss itself
  • Lost a lot of blood
    • the patient has lost between 1.0 and 1.8 litres of blood
    • should the patient bleed and/or fall unconscious
    • the blood loss might prevent reawakening
  • Lost a large amount of blood
    • the patient has lost between 1.9 and 2.4 litres of blood 
    • it is unlikely that the patient is conscious
    • the patient will not reawaken until blood volume is restored
    • in case of cardiac arrest, resuscitation is possible but difficult
  • Lost a fatal amount of blood
    • the patient has lost more than 2.4 litres of blood
    • likely to suffer cardiac arrest due to blood loss
    • resuscitation is impossible until blood volume is at least partially restored
T-II+ Skill
FM/BS-193 - Use IV bags to administer blood
T-II+ Skill
  • Attach an IV bag to one of the patients limbs or an IO needle to give them blood.
  • Do not attach the bag to a limb with a tourniquet applied
  • Do not give more blood than needed, to prevent the blood pressure from becoming too high
T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-364 - Use IO needles to administer blood and medication
T-III+ Skill
  • Use IO needles to enable fluid and medication administration through a patients chest 
  • When IV needles are not an option.
  • Keep in mind IO needles cause pain to the patient
T-II+ Skill
FM/BS-366 - Use field blood transfusion kit to take blood from players
T-II+ Skill
  • Use a field blood transfusion kit to take 250ml of blood from a donor
  • The donor has not lost a large or fatal amount of blood
  • Only transfuse blood when no other source of blood is available
  • You need space in your inventory
T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-363 - Use norepinephrine to slow down bleeding
T-IV+ Skill
  • Administer norepinephrine to
    • slow down bleeding
    • slow down transfusion speed
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 12 times every 6 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • an increase in heart rate
    • an increase in blood pressure
T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-362 - Use phenylephrine to slow down bleeding
T-IV+ Skill
  • Administer phenylephrine to:
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 6 times every 6 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • a decrease in heart rate
    • an increase in blood pressure

FM/G47 - Cardiac management

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-224 - Use CPR to restore a normal heart rate when a patient has no heart rate
T-I+ Skill

After identifying a patient with no heart rate

  1. Perform CPR for at least 30 seconds
  2. Check pulse
  3. If no heart rate, repeat

Checking a patient's pulse whilst someone else is performing CPR or checking pulse on a limb with a tourniquet placed will provide an erroneous reading. 

Guide
FM/BG-201 - Recommended process for treating cardiac arrest with an AED(-X)
Guide

When utilising an AED or AED-X for resuscitation purposes, it is advised to follow the following procedure: 

  1. Place AED(-X) pads on the patient's chest
  2. Connect Vitals Monitor to one of the patient's hands
  3. Shock using the AED
  4. If patient's heart rate is not returning, administer epinephrine FM/BS-220 - Use epinephrine to manage the cardiac rhythm
  5. Shock using the AED
  6. If patient's heart rate is not returning, administer amiodarone FM/BS-221 - Use amiodarone to manage the cardiac rhythm
  7. Shock using the AED
  8. If patient's heart rate is not returning, administer lidocaine FM/BS-222 - Use lidocaine to manage the cardiac rhythm
  9. Shock using the AED

If by step 9 the patient's heart rate has not returned, do not administer any further heart rate medicines at this point. 

This process is stopped as soon as a continuous heart rate is detected.  

T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-220 - Use epinephrine to manage the cardiac rhythm
T-IV+ Skill
T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-221 - Use amiodarone to manage the cardiac rhythm
T-IV+ Skill
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-347 - Use ammonium carbonate to increase wake-up chance
T-I+ Skill
  • Administer ammonium carbonate to increase wake-up chance
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than once every 30 seconds to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • an increase in heart rate
T-IV+ Skill
FM/BS-308 - Use epinephrine to increase wake-up chance
T-IV+ Skill
  • Administer epinephrine to increase a stable patient's wake-up chance
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 6 times every 2 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • an increase in heart rate
    • an increase in blood pressure

See FM/BS-220 - Use epinephrine to manage the cardiac rhythm for usage of this medication for resuscitation purposes.

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-361 - Use a pulse oximeter to monitor heart rate
T-III+ Skill

Use a pulse oximeter to monitor a patients heart rate

FM/G72 - Chemical managment

Guide
FM/BG-451 - Chemical warfare
Guide

Chemical warfare simulation involves using gas masks for protection against chemical threats, with their effectiveness depending on settings that determine how long you can go without a mask before experiencing negative effects. Gas masks require filters, which degrade over time and can be monitored and replaced via the ACE menu, using green stripes to indicate filter durability (each stripe represents 10% durability). Durability decreases in contaminated areas and can be adjusted in addon settings.

To detect contaminated areas, use a chemical detector, which emits a sound when entering a hazardous zone, even without active monitoring. The threat level, viewable by pressing “O” (pressing “O” twice toggles visibility), ranges from 0.0 to 1.0, with 1.0 indicating maximum danger.

Gas masks can also be fitted onto unconscious individuals through an ACE action targeting the head, automatically managing any existing face-wear by storing it in the inventory or dropping it if space is unavailable.

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-360 - Use atropine to counter chemical intoxication
T-III+ Skill
  • Administer atropine to counter chemical intoxication
  • Limit frequency of consumption to no more than 4 times every 2 minutes to avoid overdosing
  • Be aware of side effects:
    • an increase in heart rate

FM/G41 - Mass casualty incidents (MCI)

Guide
FM/BG-182 - Working with mass casualty incidents (MCI)
Guide

A mass casualty incident is any medical situation which renders an element combat ineffective and where it's unable to sustain itself. When dealing with MCIs as a medic a structured approach is required. For example a senior medic may instruct the following:

  • Combat Life Savers: tourniqueting all limbs, checking airways, bandaging head and torso, stitching or CPR.
  • Squad or Combat Medics: ensuring airways are clear and all casualties are receiving blood.
  • Platoon Medics and above: triaging incoming wounded and tasking other helpers to ensure all casualties are being treated.
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-180 - Identify a mass casualty incident
T-I+ Skill

Recognize a mass casualty incident (MCI) as any situation where the element is overwhelmed by the amount and severity of casualties, to the point that the organically attached medical personel are unable to effectively deal with it.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-181 - Follow the medical chain of command
T-I+ Skill

As a medic working at a mass casualty incident (MCI) or casualty collection point (CCP):

  •  follow this hierarchy:
    • MERT Officer or CMT Leader
    • Platoon Medic
    • SF Medic
    • MERT or CMT Technician
    • Squad Medic
    • Combat Medic
    • Combat Life Saver
  • execute the tasks given by those above in the hierarchy
  • give tasks to those below in the hierarchy
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-183 - Communicate with leadership
T-I+ Skill

Communicate the following information to your leadership at regular intervals:

  • Casualty count, by triage
  • Estimated time to recovery
  • A need for more help, if required

FM/G91 - Casualty collection points (CCP)

Guide
FM/BG-447 - Introduction to CCPs
Guide

A Casualty Collection Point (CCP) serves as a centralised and secure location for the treatment of casualties. The primary aim is to coordinate care efficiently, making use of all available resources to ensure that casualties are ready to return to action as quickly as possible. This involves crucial processes such as triage, coordination, and prioritisation, with the goal of enabling a unit to move without delays caused by waiting for individuals to recover. 

Situations that might require immediate attention include scenarios where:

  • medics are incapacitated
  • leadership is compromised
  • the CCP location lacks sufficient security
Guide
FM/BG-448 - Types of CCPs
Guide

CCPs are categorised into two types: improvised and planned. While the preference is always for a CCP to be planned, circumstances may necessitate the use of an improvised CCP, especially if a unit is rendered combat ineffective or unable to reach a pre-established CCP. Improvised CCPs are set up in defensible locations close to the site of the incident, focusing on the stabilisation of casualties and organised based on the available space to separate different triage states.

T-III+ Skill
FM/BS-213 - Choose a location for a CCP
T-III+ Skill

Choose a location with the best combination of the following factors:

  • distance to casualties to be brought over
  • protected from enemy fire
  • enough room to walk around
  • easily accessible, especially for people carrying patients
  • no internal choke points
Guide
FM/BG-449 - Setting up an improvised CCP
Guide

An improvised CCP is a contingency measure, utilised when it's impractical to transport casualties to a planned CCP. It's established by the most senior medic present, prioritising the collection and stabilisation of casualties away from direct conflict. The selection of a defensible location near the incident site is crucial, with organisation tailored to the specific environment to effectively manage different triage categories.

Guide
FM/BG-450 - Setting up a planned CCP
Guide

A planned CCP is ideally situated behind the frontlines, balancing accessibility for casualty evacuation with safety from immediate dangers such as indirect fire (IDF). These CCPs are equipped with advanced medical supplies and are set up in anticipation of need, especially when a Medical Emergency Response Team (MERT) or Combat Medical Team (CMT) is involved. Coordination and supply logistics are managed to ensure readiness for treating a high volume of severe injuries, under the guidance of a designated senior medic who oversees the optimisation of resources rather than directly administering treatment.

T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-181 - Follow the medical chain of command
T-I+ Skill

As a medic working at a mass casualty incident (MCI) or casualty collection point (CCP):

  •  follow this hierarchy:
    • MERT Officer or CMT Leader
    • Platoon Medic
    • SF Medic
    • MERT or CMT Technician
    • Squad Medic
    • Combat Medic
    • Combat Life Saver
  • execute the tasks given by those above in the hierarchy
  • give tasks to those below in the hierarchy
T-I+ Skill
FM/BS-183 - Communicate with leadership
T-I+ Skill

Communicate the following information to your leadership at regular intervals:

  • Casualty count, by triage
  • Estimated time to recovery
  • A need for more help, if required
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